Published date: 23 Aug 2023

Authors: M. Dai, Y. J. Yang, S. Sarkar, and K. H. Ahn*

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Organic fluorophores aided by current microscopy imaging modalities are essential for studying biological systems. Recently, red/near-infrared emitting fluorophores have attracted great research efforts, as they enable bioimaging applications with reduced autofluorescence interference and light scattering, two significant obstacles for deep-tissue imaging, as well as reduced photodamage and photobleaching. Herein, we analyzed the current strategies to convert key organic fluorophores bearing xanthene, coumarin, and naphthalene cores into longer wavelength-emitting derivatives by focussing on their effectiveness and limitations. Together, we introduced typical examples of how such fluorophores can be used to develop molecular probes for biological analytes, along with key sensing features. Finally, we listed several critical issues to be considered in developing new fluorophores.

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